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Research Papers

IoTeX is a long term, "technology first" project that is pushing the frontier of blockchain 3.0 with innovations in blockchain privacy, scalability, and speed. In the past 2 years, we have distributed several white papers and yellow papers to further elaborate on our innovations. 

IoTeX is the auto-scalable and privacy-centric blockchain infrastructure for the Internet of Things (IoT), which brings autonomous device coordination to the masses by “connecting the physical world, block by block". This paper introduces its several in-house innovations to push the frontier of blockchain 3.0, including a blockchains-in-blockchain architecture for heterogeneous computing, lightning fast Roll-DPoS consensus mechanism, and lightweight privacy-preserving techniques.

White Paper

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) is an efficient, decentralized, and flexible consensus framework available in the blockchain industry. However, applying DPoS to the decentralized IoT applications is quite challenging due to the nature of IoT systems such as large-scale deployments and huge amount of data. To address the unique challenge for IoT based blockchain applications,we present Roll-DPoS, a randomized delegated proof of stake algorithm. Roll-DPoS inherits all the advantages of the original DPoS consensus framework and further enhances its capability in terms of decentralization as well as extensibility to complex blockchain architectures. A number of modern cryptographic techniques havebeen utilized to optimize the consensus process with respect to thecomputational and communication overhead.

Yellow Paper - Roll-DPoS

“Scalable Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance with Short-lived Signature Schemes” has been accepted by CASCON 2018. CASCON is a premier industrial and academic conference for advanced studies in computer science and software engineering sponsored by the IBM Canada Laboratory. This paper presents IoTeX’s extensive experiments with three elliptic curves and two signature schemes which demonstrate the efficacy of using short-lived signature schemes for improving the scalability of PBFT significantly. 

Scalable Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance with Short-lived Signature Schemes

"Faster Dual-key Stealth Address for Blockchain-based Internet of Things Systems (icbc2018–9009)" has been accepted and published by one of the world’s most reputable academic blockchain conferences, the 2018 International Conference on Blockchain (ICBC 2018). This paper describes IoTeX’s enhancements to the already state-of-the-art dual-key stealth address protocol (DKSAP), which is used by projects such as Monero.

IoTeX’s new protocol (named “DKSAP-IoT”) is an IoT-friendly adaptation of DKSAP, which reduces computational overhead by 50% compared to DKSAP, thereby paving the way for its application to blockchain-based IoT systems.